Rabu, 03 Juli 2013

Vocabulary ch 35: Sensory Perception

1.       acoustical receptor        Specialized mechanoreceptor that is sensitive to vibration.
2.       action potential               Abrupt, brief reversal in the resting membrane potential of excitable cells.
3.       camera eye       Of cephalopods and vertebrates, a camera-like eyeball with an inner darkened chamber, a single opening for light, and a retina (like film) on which visual stimuli are focused.
4.       chemoreceptor               Sensory receptor that detects ions or molecules dissolved in fluid bathing it.
5.       cochlea                The snail-shaped portion of the inner ear that houses the receptors for sound.
6.       compound eye                Crustacean or insect eye with multiple rodlike units, each of which samples part of the visual field.
7.       cone cell             In a vertebrate eye, a photoreceptor that responds to intense light and contributes to sharp daytime vision and color perception.
8.       cornea Transparent cover over front of eye.
9.       echolocation     Use of echoes from self-generated ultrasounds as a navigational mechanism.
10.   encapsulated receptor Skin mechanoreceptor; detects pressure, temperature, low vibrations.
11.   external ear      Among mammals, one of a pair of sound-collecting flaps on the sides of the head.
12.   eye        Sensory organ that incorporates a dense array of photoreceptors.
13.   free nerve ending          Simplest sensory receptor in skin, internal tissues; has unmyelinated or thinly myelinated branched endings.
14.   hair cell                Hairlike mechanoreceptor that is activated when sufficiently bent or tilted.
15.   hearing                Perception of sound.
16.   inner ear             Primary organ of equilibrium, and hearing, includes vestibular apparatus, cochlea.
17.   lens       A transparent body that bends light rays so that they converge onto photoreceptors.
18.   mechanoreceptor          Sensory cell or nearby cell that detects mechanical energy (changes in pressure, position, or acceleration).
19.   middle ear         Structures (ear drum, ear bones) that transmit air waves to the inner ear.
20.   olfactory receptor          Chemoreceptor for watersoluble or volatile substance.
21.   osmoreceptor  Sensory receptor; detects shifts in water volume (solute concentration).
22.   otolith  In organ of static equilibrium, a mass of calcium carbonate crystals embedded in a membrane that is sensitive to fluid movement.
23.   pain       Perception of injury to some body region.
24.   pain receptor    A nociceptor; a sensory receptor that detects tissue damage.
25.   perception         The conscious interpretation of some aspect of the external world created by the brain from nerve impulses generated by sensory receptors.
26.   pheromone       Hormone-like, nearly odorless exocrine gland secretion. A signaling molecule between individuals of the same species that integrates social behavior.
27.   photoreceptor Light-sensitive sensory cell.
28.   retina   Dense array of photoreceptors in an eye.
29.   rod cell Vertebrate photoreceptor sensitive to very dim light. Contributes to the coarse perception of movement across visual field.
30.   sensation           Conscious awareness of a stimulus.
31.   sensory adaptation        Decrease in response to a stimulus maintained at constant strength.
32.   sensory system               The ''front door'' of a nervous system; it detects external and internal stimuli and relays information to integrating centers that issue commands for responses.
33.   somatic sensation          Perception of touch, pain, pressure, temperature, motion, or positional changes of body parts.
34.   somatosensory cortex Part of the outermost gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres.
35.   special sense    Vision, hearing, olfaction, or another sensation that arises from a particular location, such as the eyes, ears, or nose.
36.   stimulus              A specific form of energy (e.g., pressure, light, and heat) that activates a sensory receptor able to detect it.
37.   taste receptor  A chemoreceptor for substances dissolved in fluid bathing it.
38.   thermoreceptor              Sensory cell or specialized cell next to it that detects radiant energy (heat).
39.   vestibular apparatus     Organ of equilibrium.
40.   vision    Perception of visual stimuli. Light is focused on a dense layer of photoreceptors that sample details of a light stimulus, which are sent to the brain for image formation.
41.   visual accommodation  Adjustments in lens position or shape that focus light on a retina.
42.   visual field          The part of the outside world that an animal sees.

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