Kamis, 12 September 2013

Vocabulary from ch 38 BLOOD AND CIRCULATION

agglutination
Defense response; antibodies cause antigen to clump together, which facilitates phagocytosis.
anemia
Disorder resulting from deformed or insufficient quantity of red blood cells.
aorta
main artery of systemic circulation.
artery
Thick-walled, muscular, rapid-transport vessel that smooths out blood pressure pulses.
blood
Fluid connective tissue of water, solutes, and formed elements (blood cells, platelets). Transports substances to and from cells, helps maintain internal environment.
blood pressure
Fluid pressure, generated by heart contractions, that circulates blood.
capillary
Blood vessel with thin endothelial wall and small diameter.
capillary bed
Diffusion zone, consisting of great numbers of capillaries, where blood and interstitial fluid exchange substances.
cardiac conduction system
Specialized cardiac muscle cells that make the heart pump by way of their rhythmic, synchronized excitation.
cardiac cycle
Sequence of muscle contraction and relaxation in one heartbeat.
cardiac pacemaker
Sinoatrial (SA) node; mass of self-excitatory cardiac muscle cells that are the basis of normal rate of heartbeat.
cell count
The number of cells of a given type in one microliter of blood.
circulatory system
Organ system that moves substances to and from cells, and often helps stabilize body temperature and pH. Typically consists of a heart, blood vessels, and blood.
HDL
A lipoprotein in blood; it transports cholesterol to liver for metabolism.
heart
Muscular pump; its contractions keep blood circulating through the animal body.
hemostasis
Process that stops blood loss from damaged blood
LDL
Blood lipoprotein that transports cholesterol; cells take it up, but excess amounts contribute to atherosclerosis.
lymph node
Lymphoid organ packed with lymphocytes; major site for immune responses.
lymph vascular system
Part of lymphatic system; delivers fluid, solutes from interstitial fluid to blood; its lymphoid organs have roles in body defenses.
lymphatic system,
Supplements the vertebrate circulatory system; delivers fluid, solutes from interstitial fluid to blood; its lymphoid organs have roles in body defenses.
plasma
Liquid portion of blood; mainly water in which ions, proteins, sugars, gases, and other substances are dissolved.
platelet
Megakaryocyte fragment that releases substances used in clot formation.
pulmonary circuit
Vertebrate cardiovascular route; O2-poor blood flows from the heart to lungs, gets oxygenated, flows back to heart.
red blood cell
Erythrocyte. Cell that functions in the rapid transport of oxygen in blood.
spleen
A lymphoid organ that is a filtering station for blood, a reservoir of red blood cells, and a reservoir of macrophages.
stem cell
Self-perpetuating, undifferentiated animal cell.
systemic circuit
Of vertebrates, a cardiovascular route in which oxygen-enriched blood flows from the heart through the rest of the body (where it gives up oxygen and takes up carbon dioxide), then back to the heart.
thymus gland
Lymphoid organ; its hormones influence T cells, which form in bone marrow but migrate to and differentiate in the thymus.
vasoconstriction
The diameter of one or more blood vessels decreases in response to stimuli.
vasodilation
The diameter of one or more blood vessels increases in response to stimuli.
vein
Of a cardiovascular system, any of the large-diameter vessels that lead back to the heart. Of leaves, one of the vascular bundles that thread through photosynthetic tissues.
white blood cell
A leukocyte (e.g., eosinophil, neutrophil, macrophage, T or B cell) that, with chemical mediators, counters tissue invasion and tissue damage. Different kinds take part in nonspecific and specific defense responses.

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