Senin, 21 Oktober 2013

Ch 41 Digestion and nutrition glossary

1.       appendix
Narrow projection from the cecum.
2.       bile
Liver secretion required for fat digestion.
3.       brush border cells
Cells of the small intestine that are specialized for absorption.
4.       bulk
Of the vertebrate gut, the volume of undigested material in the small intestine that cannot be decreased by absorption.
5.       chyme
Liquified food material in the gut.
6.       colon
Large intestine.
7.       complete digestive system
Body tube with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other.
8.       digestive system
Body sac or tube, often with specialized regions where food is ingested, digested, and absorbed, and where undigested residues are eliminated. Incomplete systems have one opening; complete systems have two.
9.       emulsification
Of chyme, a suspension of fat droplets coated with bile salts.
10.   esophagus
A muscular tube just after the pharynx in the digestive track of vertebrates and many invertebrates.
11.   essential amino acid
Any amino acid that an organism cannot synthesize for itself and must obtain from food.
12.   essential fatty acid
Any fatty acid an organism cannot synthesize and must obtain from food.
13.   food pyramid
Chart of a purportedly wellbalanced diet; continually being refined.
14.   gallbladder
Organ that stores bile secreted from liver; its duct connects to small intestine.
15.   gastric fluid
Highly acidic mix of secretions from the stomach's glandular epithelium (HCl, mucus, pepsinogens, etc.) that act on food.
16.   ghrelin
A peptide hormone that stimulates appetite control center.
17.   gut
Generally, a sac or tube from which food is absorbed into internal environment. Also, gastrointestinal tract from stomach onward.
18.   incomplete digestive system
Food intake and waste output occurs through a single opening.
19.   kilocalorie
1,000 calories of heat energy; the amount needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1ÁC. Used as the unit of measure for the caloric content of foods.
20.   leptin
An appetite-mediating hormone.
21.   liver
In vertebrates and many invertebrates, a large gland that stores, converts, and helps maintain blood levels of organic compounds; inactivates most hormone molecules that have completed their tasks; inactivates compounds that can be toxic at high concentrations.
22.   micelle
Of fat digestion, tiny droplet of bile salts, fatty acids, and monoglycerides; role in fat absorption from small intestine.
23.   microvillus
Slender extension from free surface of certain cells; arrays of many microvilli greatly increase absorptive or secretory surface area.
24.   mineral
Any element or inorganic compound that formed by natural geologic processes and is required for normal cell functioning.
25.   nutrition
Processes of selectively ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and converting food into the body's own organic compounds.
26.   ob gene
Gene affecting set point for body fat.
27.   obesity
Excess of fat in adipose tissue; caloric intake has exceeded the body's energy output.
28.   pancreas
Gland with roles in digestion and organic metabolism. Secretes enzymes and bicarbonate into small intestine; also secretes insulin and glucagon.
29.   pharynx
Among invertebrates, a muscular tube to the gut. In some chordates, a gas exchange organ. In land vertebrates, a dual entrance to the esophagus and trachea.
30.   ruminant
Hoofed, herbivorous mammal with multiple stomach chambers.
31.   saliva
Glandular secretion that mixes with food and starts starch breakdown in mouth.
32.   segmentation
Of animal body plans, a series of units that may or may not be similar to one another in appearance. Of tubular organs, an oscillating movement produced by rings of circular muscle in the tube wall.
33.   sphincter
A ring of smooth muscles that can alternatively contract and relax to close off and open a passageway to the body surface.
34.   stomach
Muscular, stretchable sac that mixes and stores ingested food, helps break it apart mechanically and chemically, and controls its expulsion (e.g., into the small intestine).
35.   tongue
Organ of food positioning, swallowing, speech; membrane-covered skeletal muscles.
36.   tooth
A hard, bony appendage in the mouth, consisting of inner pulp, dentin, and enamel.
37.   villus
Any of several fingerlike absorptive structures projecting from the free surface of an epithelium.
38.   vitamin
Any of more than a dozen organic substances that an organism requires in small amounts for metabolism but that it generally cannot synthesize for itself.

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